The Expected Impacts of Climate Change on the Ocean Economy


Steven Gaines, Reniel Cabral, Christopher M. Free and Yimnang Golbuu (lead authors)

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Gaines, S., R. Cabral, C. Free, Y. Golbuu, et al. 2019. "The Expected Impacts of Climate Change on the Ocean Economy." Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at


This paper addresses how the compounding hazards of climate change will impact the ocean economy, specifically marine fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism. The paper examines existing and expected climate-driven changes, highlights opportunities for effective institutions and markets to reduce these impacts, explores opportunities for investments by highlighting the magnitude and direction of climate change impacts, and provides recommendations for how countries can achieve blue economic growth by implementing policies and infrastructure that reduce risks and build resilience to climate change.

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