Unsustainable Fishing and Farming

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    Overview of the Solutions Landscape

    Fishing is arguably the most immediate and solvable threat to ocean health. Definitionally, commercial fishing is premised on capturing marine life in order to provide food and jobs. It is also the ocean threat where we have the most immediate, effective, and actionable solutions, primarily in the form of fisheries management, both formal and informal.1 On paper, economic and environmental outcomes can be aligned: reducing fishing effort towards “maximum sustainable yield” allows fishers to fish less (and reducing pressure on marine life) while earning more.2 Given that we have proven effective solutions and potential for “win-wins,” the marine conservation community has spent a substantial proportion of its time and resources on trying to solve this problem and create wins for the planet and for people, making it the third most funded area by marine philanthropy, after science and protected areas at USD 200 million in 2015–2016.3

    Fisheries policy and management – when implemented well – can create a better balance between sustainability objectives and human well-being.4 At its core, fisheries management refers to a suite of tools used to manage or restore specific species to ensure sustainable use. In formal iterations, fisheries management can involve input controls (e.g., licenses, seasonal closures, gear, and effort restrictions) and/or output controls (such as limits on catch or certain species) as required by the understanding of the status of the fishery resource and the best available science. There are also significant informal or customary approaches to fisheries management that draw on local and indigenous knowledge and rules about access and use, such as community-based natural resource management and customary marine tenure.5,6,7 Most importantly though, fisheries management works: “Successful rebuilding of depleted fish population has been achieved at local and regional scales through well-proven management actions, including catch and effort restrictions, closed areas, regulations of fishing capacity and gear, catch shared, and co-management arrangements,”8 according to the world’s leading marine experts. However, the effectiveness of these interventions and their associated impacts can vary widely depending on the governance and social context, as in the case of small-scale fisheries.

    The focus of fisheries policy and management is different depending on governance context. The effectiveness of fisheries management in improving fish biomass is correlated with governance level in a fishery, specifically research, management, enforcement, and socioeconomic attributes.9 As such, fisheries management interventions look different in high-governance regions like the US and Europe and lower governance regions like Southeast Asia, Africa, and parts of Latin America. In high-governance fisheries, fisheries management focuses more on ensuring effective implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, preventing roll backs, and addressing small-scale and recreational fisheries. For low-governance countries, solutions seek to understand the status of the fishery resource through fisheries science and research, developing management systems and tools that can help to achieve competing objectives (including sustainability, economic rent maximization, food production, and jobs), ensuring that these systems are legally enshrined, and pursuing efforts to ensure greater compliance without resulting in harm to vulnerable populations. In both governance contexts, there is a strong overlap with work to protect habitats and biodiversity, through solutions like no-take reserves, area-based closures, and Marine Protected Areas, which are covered more in depth in the Habitat and Biodiversity chapter. Minimizing collateral damage to habitats and biodiversity from fishing is also a major goal of much fisheries management work, by seeking to use less destructive gears and reducing “bycatch” – the unintended capture of non-targeted marine life via un-selective fishing gears.

    Beyond national-level reforms, international standards, agreements, and treaties play an important role in setting what rules govern sustainable production of transboundary resources. Global treaties governing ocean resources are relatively new, with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) – the main international convention governing jurisdiction and use of ocean resources – only coming into full force in 1994. Outside of UNCLOS, there are an array of conventions, protocols, agreements, and active treaty negotiations that seek to govern fishery resources, such as Regional Fisheries Management Organizations, the Port State Measures Agreement, the Convention on Biological Diversity (Aichi Target 11), and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 14). Current negotiations for a UN Treaty on the High Seas are expected to conclude in late 2020.

    As with most environmental law and policy, ensuring effective monitoring and enforcement are key to achieving positive outcomes for marine life. What happens out at sea has for too long been “out of sight, out of mind,” which exposes the seafood industry to long-standing allegations of fraud, illegality, and human rights and labor abuses. Having a better understanding of what is happening at sea – via technological tools like electronic monitoring of fishing vessels and remote sensing – can be critical in ensuring good management and disincentivizing bad practices. These tools – particularly through efforts led by Global Fishing Watch – have led to groundbreaking research discoveries that are reducing the uncertainty of what is actually happening on the water. This combination of technology and research has resulted in novel collaborations with fisheries agencies and enforcement bodies all around the world. These advances in satellite data and imagery, combined with the use of artificial intelligence, have ushered breakthroughs in ocean transparency, particularly for monitoring illegal fishing by “dark fleets” that do not broadcast their location or appear in public monitoring systems.

    The environmental community’s perception of aquaculture continues to evolve, as industry explores best practices to develop and sustain a responsible ocean aquaculture sector. As wild capture landings have plateaued since the mid-1990s, aquaculture has driven continued growth in global seafood production. Although industry practices have historically resulted in pollution, rampant antibiotic use, habitat conversion and destruction, and unsustainable feeds, the industry is shifting towards responsible modes of production. Improvements in siting, which species are farmed, technology innovations to reduce waste, and feed improvements that do not rely on wild-caught seafood are all promising trends that are making the promise of sustainable aquaculture an ever more present reality, which, many suggest is necessary to meet the food demands of a growing global population.10

    Market-based solutions—eco-labels, certifications, standards, and ratings—can help shape consumer demand and pull the seafood industry towards better practices – up to a point. An increasing share of the world’s seafood is sold under an eco-label or sustainability certification (such as the Marine Stewardship Council) or otherwise working towards better management via a fisheries improvement project.11 Currently, more than 90 percent of the North American retailer market and more than 85 percent of the Northern European retailer market has a commitment to sustainable seafood. Consumer-facing education campaigns like Seafood Watch are helping to build consumer demand for sustainable seafood, especially in the EU and US. The effectiveness of these strategies is hard to judge given how challenging it is to influence markets via voluntary programs, but there is a general sense that more could be done. In particular, expanding the accessibility and reach of these programs from fisheries in higher-income good governance contexts in the Global North and to lower-income weak governance contexts in the Global South is considered to be a critical next step to ensure these tools can shape the seafood market at a meaningful scale. The alternative path is market-based solutions serving only higher-income markets and consumers. Leading philanthropic funders in the seafood markets space are actively exploring strategic directions to leverage market-based interventions for achieving durable change on the water, while also grappling with human well-being implications and labor and human rights challenges systemic in the global fishing industry.

    Technology can play an important role in improving seafood sustainability by reducing waste, improving efficiencies, and ultimately reducing pressure on fisheries resources. Helping producers earn more for the same product through improvements to the cold chain, more efficient engines, and better processing technologies and techniques and increase the value of seafood and reduce pressure – if implementation is contingent on meeting sustainability benchmarks. (Otherwise, higher value is likely to drive increases in fishing pressure). Supply chain transparency and traceability technologies can play a dual role of improving business operations and ensuring legal compliance with import requirements, such as the U.S.’s Seafood Important Monitoring Program or the EU’s rules to combat illegal fishing. Capacity building efforts in the form of support for fisheries cooperatives and training programs can help producers exert more power and influence in globalized supply chains.

    Potential Areas That Are Underexplored or Understudied

    The following areas are considered underexplored or understudied in the unsustainable fishing and farming sectors:

    • Philanthropic engagement on fisheries management remains limited in areas outside of conservation funder priority regions. Currently, there is little to no marine conservation funding going to India, East Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.12 Addressing the impacts of accelerating global environmental change (including climate change, fisheries management, and human health) will require interdisciplinary partnerships between conservation funders and practitioners, nutrition and public health experts, natural resource managers, development economists, and policymakers.
    • Though equity is garnering increased attention in conservation, it remains poorly conceptualized in both research and practice.13 The relationship between conservation, equity, and human well-being has significant knowledge gaps, particularly around highly sought-after “win-wins.”14 Nonetheless, many in the marine conservation community are currently exploring ways to enhance conservation outcomes while simultaneously enhancing the ability of wild capture fisheries and aquaculture to reduce poverty and improve food security and nutrition. Empirical research and practical application are needed to move beyond the rhetoric of triple bottom-line solutions and to understand how (and under what conditions) equity measures influence conservation effectiveness.15
    • Recognition of human rights abuses in seafood supply chains is increasing. The seafood industry is moving, if not belatedly, to address the root causes of documented human rights abuses. Improvements to worker well-being have not materialized in a meaningful way to date, though this is an area of growing exploration and engagement by marine conservation NGOs and funders. Journalistic exposés, including by Ian Urbina and others, have brought this issue to the fore in recent years.

    Knowledge Gaps and Outstanding Questions for the Field

    The following areas represent knowledge gaps and/or outstanding questions for the community:

    • How do we manage fisheries to adapt to a changing climate and its effects in the ocean? What are implications for adaptive fisheries management systems and socio-economic policies? Understanding how climate change is likely to lead to shifts in biomass, species composition, and catch is critical to developing dynamic management approaches and effective socio-economic policies and food sustainability strategies. One study found that at least 70 countries are likely to see new fish stocks in their waters by 2100 under current emissions scenarios. This suggests, then, that governments must consider potential solutions for avoiding conflicts, including allowing the trade of fishing permits or quotas across international boundaries.16
    • From a livelihoods and well-being perspective, how can the global community best support the needs of developing countries with high fisheries dependency that are likely to be negatively impacted by climate change? According to one study, about 845 million people will likely face macro-nutrient deficiency due to fish-catch declines and climate change impacts; these impacts are most pronounced in low-latitude developing nations.17
    • What is the capacity of the seafood sector to meet growing global demand for nutritious protein, and to what extent can it do so sustainably? Experts are exploring the degree to which seafood production can meet increased food demands; one study suggests that seafood may represent 12 to 25 percent of the estimated increase in all meat required to feed 9.8 billion people by 2050.18 There are several factors – including policy reforms, technological innovation, and consumer preferences – that will shape the sustainability level of increased seafood production.
    • How can fisheries managers and conservation practitioners reconcile the costs and benefits of management reforms? Where do the costs and benefits of transitioning to sustainable management fall, particularly in “J-shaped” recoveries when benefits may take time to accrue to fishers?19 How should costs of sustainable management be distributed between government, industry, and consumers? In case where producers and supply chain actors close to the water bear the brunt of the costs, how do we develop more fair and equitable approaches to transitioning towards improved management, while remediating the worst abuses?

    Emerging Areas of Interest and Research

    The following areas represent emerging areas of interest and research for the wild capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors:

    • The path to reforming harmful fisheries subsidies is reaching a zenith in 2020. Although politically complicated as negotiations occur at the World Trade Organization level, removing harmful fisheries subsidies (for fuel and vessels) can bring substantial benefits to fish populations, fishers, consumers, and taxpayers, globally. Subsidies negotiations were reinvigorated in 2015 when the UN adopted Sustainable Development Goals—including SDG 14 which has a dedicated target for reaching an agreement to end harmful fisheries subsidies by 2020.
    • Novel data gathering and visualization techniques—including remote sensing tools developed by Global Fishing Watch, Skytruth, Planet Labs and others—may offer breakthrough solutions for improving transparency on the ocean. The coming years may lead to striking gains for marine conservation at scale, particularly if the technological tools are married with good governance and enforcement measures.
    • Cellular production methods for “growing” seafood are being explored as alternatives to both wild caught and farmed aquaculture, with potentially lower life-cycle environmental footprints. Proponents of the cell-based seafood market suggest that this alternative represents a partial solution for reducing pressure on wild fish stocks. Skeptics suggest that time will tell whether the emerging industry can overcome challenges including costs, regulatory requirements, and consumer preferences to assume a position in the marketplace.
    Note about the scope of interventions outlined here: This typology focuses on direct and indirect actions that are explicitly intended to address unsustainable fishing and farming. Direct actions are considered those that directly address threats, while indirect actions represent supporting or enabling actions that facilitate direct actions.

    Typology: Direct Interventions

    Intervention CategoryIntervention SubcategoryExamples
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Input controls: License limitations
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Input controls: Seasonal closures
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Input controls: Gear restrictions
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Input controls: Horsepower restrictions
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Input controls: Days at sea
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Output controls: Limits on catch (e.g., Annual Catch Limit, Total Allowable Catch)
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Output controls: Species prohibitions
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Rights-based management of fisheries: Catch shares
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Rights-based management of fisheries: Access rights (e.g., fishing license, Territorial Use Rights (TURFs), customary marine tenure (CMT))
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Rights-based management of fisheries: Withdrawal rights (e.g., quota, total allowable catch, catch shares)
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Area and habitat-based controls: No-take zones and marine reserves
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Area and habitat-based controls: Gear restricted zones
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Community-based natural resource management: Fishing cooperatives
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Community-based natural resource management: Locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) (e.g., design and planning, designation and gazetting, management, monitoring and enforcement)
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Measures to reduce or regulate bycatch: Bycatch limits for targeting specific species groups (e.g., seabirds, turtles, marine mammals)
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Measures to reduce ghost fishing: E.g., gear marking and recycling, lost gear reporting and recovery, education and awareness, mandating gear improvements
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Improving biological and ecological knowledge of economically important marine species populations (e.g., fish, squid): E.g., population genetics and acoustics to inform stock assessments, eDNA, ecosystem modeling
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Improving biological and ecological knowledge of economically important marine species populations (e.g., fish, squid): Elevating and utilizing local/indigenous knowledge for science and management
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Fisheries Management
    Data-limited assessment tools for fisheries management: E.g., assessment tools for spawning potential ratio
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Species Stewardship
    Community behavior change “pride” campaigns
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Species Stewardship
    Habitat restoration for the species themselves (e.g., restoring foraging, nursery, or spawning grounds)
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Species Stewardship
    Biocontrol for invasive species
    Species and Ecosystem Management
    Species Reintroduction and Translocation
    Fish ladders and other translocation efforts for diadramous fish (e.g., salmon)
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Surveillance and detection of fishing activity: Satellite imagery and vessel tracking (AIS/VMS)
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Surveillance and detection of fishing activity: Dockside and port inspections
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Surveillance and detection of fishing activity: Air patrols and surveys (e.g., planes, aerial drones)
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Surveillance and detection of fishing activity: Sea patrols and surveys (e.g., fishery patrol boats, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles)
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Monitoring of fishing activity: Electronic monitoring systems
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Monitoring of fishing activity: Observer programs
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Monitoring of fishing activity: Transshipment monitoring
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Monitoring of fishing activity: Data modernization (e.g., electronic logbooks)
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance
    Universal vessel registries
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Criminal Prosecution and Conviction
    Prosecution
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Criminal Prosecution and Conviction
    Fines
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Criminal Prosecution and Conviction
    Impounding/interdicting vessels
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Criminal Prosecution and Conviction
    Custodial sentencing
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Criminal Prosecution and Conviction
    Revoking fishing licenses
    Enforcement and Prosecution
    Non-Criminal Legal Action
    Suing a company to stop illegal fishing
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Laws, Regulations, and Codes
    National laws, regulations, and codes regulating fishing, aquaculture and use of marine resources (e.g., marine life protection actions, aquaculture permitting, aquaculture effluent controls)
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Laws, Regulations, and Codes
    Regional laws, regulations, and codes regulating fishing and use of marine resources
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Laws, Regulations, and Codes
    Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs)
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Laws, Regulations, and Codes
    National laws governing transparency of information (e.g., ensuring fisheries disclose public what they do; which vessels are authorized to fish in a given area)
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Laws, Regulations, and Codes
    Codification of customary/indigenous rules
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Policies and Guidelines
    Implementation and monitoring of national fisheries and aquaculture policies: Policies in key geographies (particularly in the US, EU, Mexico, Indonesia)
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Policies and Guidelines
    Port State Measures Agreement (PSMA): PSMA implementation
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Policies and Guidelines
    Port State Measures Agreement (PSMA): Country ratification of PSMA
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Policies and Guidelines
    International legal and policy frameworks including treaties and agreements: UN Treaty on the High Seas
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Policies and Guidelines
    International legal and policy frameworks including treaties and agreements: UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Policies and Guidelines
    Zoning, density, and growth limits of coastal and near-shore development for aquaculture
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Customary Law and Rule Enforcement
    Legal recognition and framework development for customary marine tenure (CMT)
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Customary Law and Rule Enforcement
    Legislation
    Legal and Policy Frameworks
    Customary Law and Rule Enforcement
    Institutional development
    Education and Training
    Formal and Informal Education
    Fisheries science education
    Education and Training
    Training
    Training and capacity development for fisheries management
    Education and Training
    Training
    Supporting the development of local leaders
    Awareness Raising
    Outreach and Communication
    Consumer engagement and education on current state of world’s fish stocks, overfishing, seafood demand: Documentaries, print, blogs, social media, news
    Awareness Raising
    Outreach and Communication
    Consumer engagement and education on current state of world’s fish stocks, overfishing, seafood demand: Community events, conferences, school programs, roadshows, social marketing
    Awareness Raising
    Outreach and Communication
    Consumer engagement and education on current state of aquaculture, overexploitation, or damaging practices and demand: Documentaries, print, blogs, social media, news
    Awareness Raising
    Outreach and Communication
    Public aquaria
    Awareness Raising
    Outreach and Communication
    Environmental education
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Job re-training programs
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Vessel buyback schemes
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Eco-tourism
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Alternative uses
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Aquaculture
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Implementing a sustainable livelihoods approach
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Linked Enterprises and Alternative Livelihoods
    Financial inclusion services (e.g., insurance, savings, credit)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Industry practices to reduce, eliminate, or avoid labor abuses and other illegal practices in supply chains (fisheries, aquaculture, shipping, tourism)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Genomics for transparency of seafood supply chains and illegal fishing (at sub-species and localization level)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Other corporate traceability and transparency practices
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Buyer partnerships and sustainable seafood commitments (wild capture and aquaculture)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Good operating companies (i.e., companies that can get a premium in the market for “good practice”)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Aquaculture production best management practices
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Corporate Practices and Engagement
    Invasive species restrictions: E.g., ballast water management/convention (IMO)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Consumer or producer substitution, through technology or product innovation
    Fishing gear innovations
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Consumer or producer substitution, through technology or product innovation
    Alternative seafood product development (lab-based): Plant-based seafood
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Consumer or producer substitution, through technology or product innovation
    Alternative seafood product development (lab-based): Cell-based seafood
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Consumer or producer substitution, through technology or product innovation
    Genetic research on alternative seafood species for aquaculture production: E.g., new commercially viable species, genetically modified species
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Consumer or producer substitution, through technology or product innovation
    Feed alternatives, particularly fishmeal and fish oil
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Market-Based Incentives
    Eco-labels and certifications: Fisheries: MSC
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Market-Based Incentives
    Eco-labels and certifications: Aquaculture: ASC, GAA, BAP
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Market-Based Incentives
    Ratings (e.g., Seafood Watch, Oceanwise)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Market-Based Incentives
    Fisheries and aquaculture improvement projects (FIPs, AIPs)
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Market-Based Incentives
    Consumer engagement and education of sustainably certified products
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Market-Based Incentives
    Investment products to reward sustainable production or practices
    Livelihood, Economic, and Other Incentives
    Direct Economic Incentives
    Subsidies for sustainable practices in seafood and aquaculture production
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology to reduce waste and pollution from fishingBIodegradable nets and FADs
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology to reduce waste and pollution from fishingFreezing/drying technology
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology to reduce waste and pollution from fishingProcessing waste to fishmeal and fish oil (and increased conversion in existing fishmeal and fish oil supply chains)
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology to control pathogens and parasites
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology for monitoring transparency in the seafood industryTracking valuable fish with implanted chips
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology for monitoring transparency in the seafood industryImproved vessel tracking technology
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology for monitoring transparency in the seafood industryBlockchain
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology for monitoring transparency in the seafood industryTraceability software and technology
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology for monitoring transparency in the seafood industryBuilding algorithms to identify vessels with high risk of labor violations or IUU activities
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Technology for monitoring transparency in the seafood industrySatellite imagery (radar and optical) to identify hotspots of unreported or illegal activity
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Energy efficiency in supply chainsE.g. efficient engines, solar-powered cold chain
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Production technology for aquacultureE.g., recirculation tanks and offshore cages
    Infrastructure, Services, and Technology
    Fish attraction devices

    Typology: Indirect Interventions

    Intervention CategoryIntervention SubcategoryExamples
    Institutional and Organizational development
    Internal Organizational Management and Administration
    Capacity development (e.g., management trainings, finance and administration support)
    Institutional and Organizational development
    External Organizational Development and Support
    Pro-bono services to a fisheries organization (e.g., financial training, legal support, technical training, technological tools)
    Institutional and Organizational development
    External Organizational Development and Support
    Other programs to advance organizational capacity
    Institutional and Organizational development
    Alliance and Partnership Development
    Partnerships and coalitions [e.g., Fisher Cooperative networks, regional fisheries organizations (e.g. Caribbean Network of Fisherfolk Organizations)]
    Institutional and Organizational development
    Financing Conservation
    Technology/innovation challenge grants, corporate philanthropy, private foundation grants, government grants, impact investing, and individual giving for sustainable fishing and aquaculture
    Institutional and Organizational development
    Financing Conservation
    Fishing access agreements (e.g., sustainable fisheries partnership agreements in the EU)
    Land and Water Management
    Area-Based Management
    MPA compliance through effective monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS)
    Land and Water Management
    Area-Based Management
    Coral ecosystem protection: MPAs, reducing other stressors, fishing policy, enhanced adaptation
    Land and Water Management
    Area-Based Management
    Mangrove protection: education, blue carbon protocols, national policy
    Land and Water Management
    Area-Based Management
    Seagrass protection
    Land and Water Management
    Area-Based Management
    Estuarine protection
    Land and Water Management
    Restoration
    Restoration of seagrass, salt marsh, kelp, and/or mangrove habitats on suitable lands
    Land and Water Management
    Restoration
    Creation of artificial reefs

    Notes

    1. Hilborn, R., Amoroso, R.O., Anderson, C.M., et al. “Effective fisheries management instrumental in improving fish stock status.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Jan 2020), 117 (4) 2218-2224; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909726116.
    2. Maunder, M. N. “Maximum Sustainable Yield.” In Encyclopedia of Ecology, edited by Sven Erik Jørgensen and Brian D. Fath, 2292–96. Oxford: Academic Press, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008045405-4.00522-X.
    3. Analysis by CEA Consulting, 2018. Prepared for “Our Shared Seas: Global ocean data and trends for informed action and decision-making,” 2019.
    4. Cinner, J., Huchery, C., MacNeil, M. et al. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs. Nature 535, 416–419 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18607
    5. Cinner, J. E., & Aswani, S. “Integrating customary management into marine conservation.” Biological Conservation, 140(3–4), 201–216. (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.08.008.
    6. Bennett, Nathan J., Roth, R., Klain, S. C. et al. “Conservation social science: Understanding and integrating human dimensions to improve conservation.” Biological Conservation, 205 (2017): 93–108.
    7. Poe, M. R., Norman, K. C., & Levin, P. S. “Cultural Dimensions of Socioecological Systems: Key Connections and Guiding Principles for Conservation in Coastal Environments: Cultural dimensions of coastal conservation.” Conservation Letters, 7 (2014): 166–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12068.
    8. Duarte, Carlos M., Susana Agusti, Edward Barbier, Gregory L. Britten, Juan Carlos Castilla, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Robinson W. Fulweiler, et al. “Rebuilding Marine Life.” Nature 580, no. 7801 (April 2020): 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2146-7.
    9. Melnychuk, Michael C., Emily Peterson, Matthew Elliott, and Ray Hilborn. “Fisheries Management Impacts on Target Species Status.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, no. 1 (January 3, 2017): 178–83. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1609915114.
    10. Knowlton, Nancy. “Ocean Optimism: Moving Beyond the Obituaries in Marine Conservation.” Annual Review of Marine Science 13, no. 1 (January 3, 2021). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-040220-101608.
    11. CEA Consulting. Progress Toward Sustainable Seafood – By the Numbers. June 2020.
    12. Analysis by CEA Consulting, 2018. Prepared for “Our Shared Seas: Global ocean data and trends for informed action and decision-making,” 2019.
    13. Meth, Leah and Bennett, N. “DEI-Social Science Learning Agenda: An introduction to social science research on conservation and equity.” Unpublished manuscript. 2020.
    14. Ibid.
    15. Ibid.
    16. Lam, V., Cheung, W., Reygondeau, G. et al. Projected change in global fisheries revenues under climate change. Sci Rep 6, 32607 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32607.
    17. Golden, C. et al., “Nutrition: Fall in Fish Catch Threatens Human Health,” Nature 534 (2016): 317-20, doi:10.1038/534317a.
    18. Costello, C., Cao, L., Gelcich, S. et al. The future of food from the sea. Nature (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2616-y.
    19. Mangin T, Costello C, Anderson J, Arnason R, Elliott M, Gaines SD, et al. “Are fishery management upgrades worth the cost?” PLoS ONE 13, no 9. (2018). https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0204258.