Blue carbon: The potential of coastal and oceanic climate action


McKinsey and Company

Publication Year:



McKinsey and Company, 2022. "Blue carbon: The potential of coastal and oceanic climate action."


This report consider three categories of blue-carbon solutions, classified by their scientific and economic maturity - established solutions, new and emerging solutions, and nascent solutions. For each category of solutions, this report sizes approaches and measures their impacts, costs, and likely access to funding. It highlights the latest scientific research and leverages McKinsey analysis to estimate the potential for abatement or conservation by 2050. This report also includes deeper analysis of kelp reforestation and bottom trawling to show how economies of scale in these emerging solutions could help reduce prohibitive costs. If fully implemented, the established class of solutions described here would abate 0.4 to 1.2 metric gigatons of carbon dioxide (GtCO2) annually—1 to 3 percent of total current annual CO2 emissions.

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